was measured with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive
Abilities (WJ III). The WJ III is a well normed individual
intelligence test that, in addition to yielding a total score, has
multiple subscales that measure the many abilities which are necessary
for learning. Sally’s Broad Cognitive Ability Score (similar to
an IQ) of 114 places her in the high average range at the 82nd
percentile, i.e., she did as well or better on this test as 82 of
100 children her age.
||There is a problem inherent
in all IQ scores, (WJ III, WISC-III, etc.), that are derived from
an average of several subtests. If there is too great a range of
scores, their "average" loses its usefulness as a means
of summarizing the many abilities that combine to form human intelligence.
A better approach is to consider each of the cognitive abilities
separately in making predictions of potential. Human intelligence
is much too complex to be compressed into any one score. Below
are the cognitive (intellectual) abilities measured by the WJ III.
|Visual Processing: Being able
to accurately see letters and numbers is an essential first step
for reading and math, and the ability to recognize and remember
objects that are seen is important for a broad range of tasks—art,
drafting, architecture, or simply recalling the faces of friends.
Sally placed in the high average range on the visual processing
subtest (Visual Closure).
Processing: This refers to the ability to hear the sounds
which combine to form words. It is a skill which is very important
in spelling and learning new words by hearing them, e.g., learning
a foreign language. It is not the same as Listening Comprehension
which refers to the ability to grasp the meaning of what one hears.
Sally’s auditory processing abilities are very weak. Her skill
at hearing the sounds from which words are built (Incomplete Words)
is at the 16th percentile and her aptitude for blending them into
complete words is at the 25th. This significant weakness probably
is contributing to her problems with reading and spelling.
As the WJ III tests of visual processing do not
measure the tendency to see numbers, letters, and words backward,
the Jordan Left-Right Reversal Test was administered. Sally did
not do as well on the Jordan. Her 14 errors place her at the 0
percentile. When asked to proof read a page of letters and numbers
she failed to recognize a backward z and 7. She also failed to
note the reversals in goob, puick, qull, bab, qencil, bown, etc.
And when she was proofing complete sentences she missed, “The
horse ran no the grass.” This is a serious weakness in a child
her age and suggests the presence of visually based dyslexia.